Conditions We Treat

Ankle Pain

What Can Cause Ankle Pain?
  • Achilles Tendinitis
  • Ankle Sprain
  • Arthritis (Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid, Psoriatic)
  • Fracture
  • Gout
  • Tarsal Tunnel

Ankle pain can be a complex problem, it is best to discsus with a trained foot and ankle specialist to help identify the cause

  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Brusing
  • Redness
  • Weakness/Instability
When to see a Doctor
  • If you are having continued pain, swelling, bruising
  • Trouble walking or putting weight onto that ankle
  • When your ankle feels unsteady when you are walking
  • The pain has started to affect your ability to do the activities you enjoy
  • If you have a history of ankle sprains
  • Physical Examination and History are extremeley important when figuring out what is causing your ankle pain
  • X-Rays will help your doctor examine for fracture, arthritis, and soft tissue swelling
  • Sometimes further imaging may be required to examine your ligaments and tendons (MRI or US)
  • Your doctor may recommend change in shoe gear
  • OTC or custom inserts
  • Steroid injection
  • Activity modification
  • Bracing
  • Physical Therapy
  • Sometimes surgery can be required to correct underlying causes of ankle pain



What is a Bunion?
  • A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your big toe. It occurs when some of the bones in the front part of your foot move out of place.
  • This causes the tip of your big toe to get pulled toward the smaller toes and forces the joint at the base of your big toe to stick out. The skin over the bunion might be red and sore.
  • They can also develop on the joint of your little toe.
  • A bulging bump on the outside of the base of your big toe
  • Swelling, redness or soreness around your big toe joint
  • Corns or calluses
  • Ongoing pain or pain that comes and goes
  • Limited movement of your big toe
When to see a Doctor
Although bunions often require no medical treatment, see your Podiatrist if you have:

  • Ongoing big toe or foot pain
  • A visible bump on your big toe joint
  • Decreased movement of your big toe or foot
  • Difficulty finding shoes that fit properly because of a bunion
There are many theories about how bunions develop, but the exact cause is unknown. Factors likely include:

  • Inherited foot type
  • Foot stress or injuries
  • Deformities present at birth
  • Experts disagree on whether tight, high-heeled or too-narrow shoes cause bunions or whether footwear simply contributes to the development of bunions.
  • Bunions might be associated with certain types of arthritis, particularly inflammatory types, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Your doctor may recommend change in shoe gear
  • OTC or custom inserts
  • Steroid injection
  • Activity modification
  • Some patients require surgery to correct their bunion if they become very painful

Plantar Wart

What is a Plantar Wart?
  • Plantar warts are small growths that usually appear on the heels or other weight-bearing areas of your feet. This pressure may also cause plantar warts to grow inward beneath a hard, thick layer of skin (callus).
  • Most plantar warts aren’t a serious health concern and usually go away without treatment eventually. You may want to try self-care treatments or see your doctor to have the warts removed.
  • A small, fleshy, rough, grainy growth (lesion) on the bottom of your foot, usually the base of the toes and forefoot or the heel
  • Hard, thickened skin (callus) over a well-defined “spot” on the skin, where a wart has grown inward
  • Black pinpoints, which are actually small, clotted blood vessels
  • A lesion that interrupts the normal lines and ridges in the skin of your foot
  • Pain or tenderness when walking or standing
When to see a Doctor
  • The lesion is bleeding, painful or changes in appearance or color
  • You’ve tried treating the wart, but it persists, multiplies or recurs
  • Your discomfort interferes with activities
  • You also have diabetes or poor sensation in your feet
  • You also have a weakened immune system because of immune-suppressing drugs, HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders
  • You aren’t sure whether the lesion is a wart
  • Plantar warts are caused by an infection with HPV in the outer layer of skin on the soles of your feet. They develop when the virus enters your body through tiny cuts, breaks or other weak spots on the bottoms of your feet.
  • HPV is very common, and more than 100 kinds of the virus exist. But only a few of them cause warts on the feet. Other types of HPV are more likely to cause warts on other areas of your skin or on mucous membranes.
  • Your doctor may scrape away the overlying callus tissue. They may then utlizing a topical agent such as salicylic acid. They may also instruct you to perform your own at home treatment inbetween visits
  • Avoid direct contact with warts. This includes your own warts. Wash your hands carefully after touching a wart
  • Keep your feet clean and dry. Change your shoes and socks daily
  • Avoid walking barefoot around swimming pools and locker rooms
  • Don’t pick at or scratch warts
  • Don’t use the same emery board, pumice stone or nail clipper on your warts as you use on your healthy skin and nails


What is Gout?
  • Gout is a common and complex form of arthritis that can affect anyone. It’s characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness and tenderness in the joints, often the joint at the base of the big toe.
  • An attack of gout can occur suddenly, often waking you up in the middle of the night with the sensation that your big toe is on fire. The affected joint is hot, swollen and so tender that even the weight of the sheet on it may seem intolerable.
  • Gout symptoms may come and go, but there are ways to manage symptoms and prevent flares.
  • Intense joint pain. Gout usually affects the large joint of your big toe, but it can occur in any joint. The pain is likely to be most severe within the first four to 12 hours after it begins.
  • Lingering discomfort. After the most severe pain subsides, some joint discomfort may last from a few days to a few weeks. Later attacks are likely to last longer and affect more joints.
  • Inflammation and redness. The affected joint or joints become swollen, tender, warm and red.
  • Limited range of motion. As gout progresses, you may not be able to move your joints normally.
When to see a Doctor
  • If you experience sudden, intense pain in a joint, call your doctor. Gout that goes untreated can lead to worsening pain and joint damage.
  • Seek medical care immediately if you have a fever and a joint is hot and inflamed, which can be a sign of infection.
  • Gout occurs when urate crystals accumulate in your joint, causing the inflammation and intense pain of a gout attack. Urate crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood.
  • Purines are also found in certain foods, such as steak, organ meats and seafood. Other foods also promote higher levels of uric acid, such as alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and drinks sweetened with fruit sugar (fructose).
  • Obesity.
  • Certain diseases and conditions increase your risk of gout. These include untreated high blood pressure and chronic conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart and kidney diseases.
  • Certain medications.
  • Family history of gout.
  • Age and sex. Gout occurs more often in men, primarily because women tend to have lower uric acid levels.
  • Recent surgery or trauma. Experiencing recent surgery or trauma has been associated with an increased risk of developing a gout attack.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs include over-the-counter options such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve), as well as more-powerful prescription NSAIDs such as indomethacin (Indocin) or celecoxib (Celebrex).
  • Corticosteroids. Corticosteroid medications, such as the drug prednisone, may control gout inflammation and pain. Corticosteroids may be in pill form, or they can be injected into your joint.
  • Medications to prevent gout complications
  • If you experience several gout attacks each year, or if your gout attacks are less frequent but particularly painful, your doctor may recommend medication to reduce your risk of gout-related complications. Talk with your PCP about this.

Nail Problems

What Are Different Nail Problems?
  • Thick & difficult to cut nails
  • Nails that are lifting up
  • Discolored nails
  • Subungual Hematoma (blood stuck under your nail)
  • Pain
  • Discoloration
  • Increased thickness
  • Difficulty trimming your own nails
When to see a Doctor
  • If you are a diabetic you should discuss with a Podiatrist if it is safe for you to trim your own nails
  • If the nail becomes painful
  • Unable to trim them safely yourself
  • If you are concerned about a fungal infection
  • Fungal Infections
  • Trauma
  • Chemotherapy/Radiation
  • Certain Medical Conditions
  • Your podiatrist can help trim the nails and reduce their thickness
  • Sometimes if a fungal infection is a concern they will take a small nail sample to check for the presence of fungus
  • Oral and Topical medications are sometimes necessary to help with nail problems
  • Removal of the nail or a portion of the nail is also an option in some cases (temporary or permanent)

Diabetic Foot Care

What is Diabetic Foot Care?
  • Keeping your feet healthy when you are a diabetic is very important
  • Diabetes can cause a loss of protective sensation, reduce the amount of blood flow you are getting to your foot, and a change in your overall foot structure
  • It can mean that small cuts and scrapes turn into nonhealing ulcerations
  • Increase swelling of legs or feet
  • Change of skin color
  • Numbness, Burning, Tingling sensation in your feet
  • Ingrown toenails
  • Slow to heal sores
  • Cracks between toes
When to see a Doctor
  • Preventative care is crucial, don’t wait until you have a problem to come see a Podiatrist!
  • If you have trouble trimming your own nails
  • You have a cut or scrape that isn’t healing
  • Trouble finding the appopriate shoe gear
  • Corns and calluses on your feet
  • Diabetes is more than just high blood sugar!
  • Diabetes affects the blood vessels, nerves,  muscles in your feet, and even the texture of your skin


  • Your PCP or Endocrinologist will manage your medication and your blood sugar levels
  • Podiatrists help with all things foot related including:
  • Callus and Nail Care
  • Fitting for diabetic shoes and inserts (certain qualifications must be met)
  • Identification of high risk feet
  • Neuropathic Pain
  • Wound Care
  • Surgical treatment
  • And Preventative Care to help keep your feet out of trouble!


Pediatric Foot Care

What is Pediatric Podiatry?
  • Kids can have trouble with their feet just like adults
  • Ingrown Nails
  • Heel Pain (Sever’s Disease)
  • Flat Feet
  • Avoidance of physical activity
  • Always asking to be picked up while walking
  • Redness, swelling, and pain
When to see a Doctor
  • For an ingrown nail the sooner your Podatrist can help treat it the better to help prevent infection
  • If your child complains of pain after physical activity or avoids it all together
  • If you are concerned about their foot structure (flat feet or high arches)
  • Inherited foot structure
  • Injury
  • Growing Pains
  • Improper cutting of the nails
  • Removal of the ingrown nail
  • Inserts are a great place to start to help with foot pain in children

Plantar Fasciitis

What is Plantar Fasciitis?
  • Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain.
  • It involves inflammation of a thick band of tissue that runs across the bottom of your foot and connects your heel bone to your toes (plantar fascia).
  • Pain first step in the morning or after periods of rest
  • Shooting pain in the bottom of your heel
  • Tenderness when pressing on the bottom of your heel
When to see a Doctor
  • If you had an injury that caused the pain to start
  • When the pain is affecting your everyday activities
  • After trying at home treatments with no improvement in pain
  • Your plantar fascia is in the shape of a bowstring, supporting the arch of your foot and absorbing shock when you walk. If tension and stress on this bowstring become too great, small tears can occur in the fascia.
  • Age
  • Obesity
  • Occupation
  • Physical Activity
  • Stretching, icing, and massaing the area
  • OTC or Custom Inserts
  • Shoe gear modification
  • Night Splints
  • Steroids (injection or taken by mouth)
  • Phyical Therapy
  • Surgery is rarely needed and is only considered after all conservative treatment options have failed


What is a Neuroma?
  • A neuroma is a painful condition, also referred to as a “pinched nerve” or a nerve tumor. It is a benign growth of nerve tissue frequently found between the third and fourth toes
  • Pain, a burning sensation, tingling, or numbness between the toes and in the ball of the foot.
  • Pain between the toes while walking.
  • Feeling as if you have a pebble in your shoe.
When to see a Doctor
  • Podiatric medical care should be sought at the first sign of pain or discomfort. If left untreated, neuromas tend to get worse.
  • Biomechanical deformities, such as a high-arched foot or a flat foot, can lead to the formation of a neuroma.
  • Trauma can cause damage to the nerve, resulting in inflammation or swelling of the nerve.
  • Improper footwear that causes the toes to be squeezed together is problematic especially high heels.
  • Repeated stress, common to many occupations, can create or aggravate a neuroma.
  • Shoe Gear Modifications.
  • Taping and padding of the foot.
  • Injections into the area of the neuroma.
  • Surgery is required when all conservative treatment has failed and your podiatric surgeon will need to go in and remove the inflammed nerve.

Get In Touch

The services listed above are not all that we care for at Ankle & Foot Associates. If you have any concerns about your ankle or foot please contact us today to schedule an appointment!

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